'Substantial Doubt' is a phrase I find useful for describing my artistic process and intent. My sculptures lean toward fabrications that mimic the productivity, clarity, and efficiency promised us by mechanical/technological systems. However, within these works there are contradictions, seeming dislocations, omissions, or evidence of dubious output that undercut this optimism. The specifics then lend doubt to the whole proposition. The results are my attempt to visually suggest the disparities I sense between the aspirations and actual results of contemporary culture.